make widely known"
Greeks were the first to experiment with alternative (i.e. other than
sending a messenger) methods of transmitting information over long
distances. These early 'transmissions' involved the tops of hills,
and fire by night, plus columns of smoke or large mirrors by day.
This principle did not evolve very far until the 19th century, when
experiments began to transmit messages via a series of electrical
clicks on wires. Thus the telegraph system was born, laying the foundations
for the broadcast of the human voice and other noises.
Beginnings of Radio
is the first 'modern' media form, and had a huge impact on the history
of the 20th century. For the first time information could be broadcast,
ie it could be received by anyone with the right equipment, without wires. The birth of radio ushers in the era of mass communications.
Many people have likened the explosion in radio in the 1920s to what
is happening with the internet today - lots of enthusiasts setting
up their 'broadcast slot' and sharing their knowledge with similar
people. Wireless communication has really come full circle, as more
and more people turn to mobile phones and handheld computers that
can receive internet 'transmissions'. As with the recording of images
(in the 19th century they were recorded on metal plates, now they
are recorded on metal plates that make up DVDs and computer hard drives) the
broadcast of information has come full circle.
documented radio transmission occurred in 1895 and was sent by a 21
year old Italian, Guglielmo Marconi, who conducted simple experiments
using a radio transmitter and receiver, the transmitter placed at
his house, and the receiver placed three miles away. He got his servant
to fire a gun when the transmission had been received - the three
of the letter S in Morse Code. The Italian government were not at
all interested in Marconi's invention, so he continued his experiments
in Britain where he had the full support of the Minister of Post.
Marconi (who had never been to university and had taught himself physics
and electronics!) took out several patents and started to build radio
stations across the south coast of Britain. In late 1901 he crossed
the Atlantic to St John's Terranova, and there, on 12 December, received
the first weak transatlantic radio signal, another ···.
more about the early history of radio at these sites:
New Tricks of Communication
had an immediate application for shipping, as now ships on the busy
transatlantic routes could communicate with land and each other. Think
about the role that radio transmission played in the arrest of notorious
murderer Dr Crippen, who tried to flee to America with his lover on
the SS Montrose:
message was transmitted to the White Star Company in London, who forwarded
it to Scotland Yard, on July 22 1910 and resulted in the capture of
the killer as he tried to disembark in Canada; the first arrest of
a criminal made possible by the new technology.
the sinking of the Titanic in 1912
it was not until after World War I (during which radio communications
were used intensively) that the first mass broadcasts began. This
occured on November 6th 1919 when a Dutch concert was broadcast at
a pre-arranged time (so amateur radio enthusiasts as far away as Britain
could tune in). The first commercial radio station opened in Pittsburgh
in July 1920, and the radio quickly became a popular source of entertainment
(music, comedy, drama), sport, information and news. By 1930 a radio
set provided the main source of entertainment in homes across the
world. RTHK began broadcasting in 1928.
about early radio broadcasting (during the 1920s)at these sites:
Beginnings of Television
of television (i.e. sending and receiving images along wireless technology)
was first bouncing around in the 1870s, but it did not become a reality
until the 1920s. It is very difficult to name one person as 'the inventor
of television' as different scientists all over the world invented different
components to combine into what we understand today as 'TV technology'.
The first of these was Vladimir K. Zworykin, who in 1921 invented a
device that would convert patterns of light into electronic impulses.
He was followed by Scotsman, John Logie Baird, who produced the first
television set in 1924, but it showed only shadows. Also in 1924, Philo
Farnsworth, an American, came up with the concept of broadcast television.
By 1928 engineers had managed to create a crude receiver set and camera,
and this went on show at the World's Fair - the first public viewing
of television. However, the opportunities presented by TV
were clear to many before this, and both the BBC and CBS were established
the early days of television at these sites:
in most countries (with the exception of the US) was interrupted by
the onset of World War 2. From 1939-1945 people around the world depended
on their radios for up-to-the-minute news of the conflict, for speeches
from politicians, for instructions from government bodies, and for light
entertainment which might take their minds of the conflict for a short
time. However, as soon as the war was over, the studios were reopened,
the dustcovers were pulled off the equipment, and broadcasting resumed,
often exactly where it had left off (in the middle of a Mickey Mouse cartoon
in 1939, in the BBC's case). TV was back, and quickly established itself
as the most popular media form of the 20th century, with the ownership
of tv sets rising every year from the 1940s to the present day. There
are currently around 1 billion TV sets in the world.
TV sets have come a long way from their basic origins. Colour TVs were first introduced in the early 1950s (once a way had been found to make colour broadcasts backwards compatible for everyone who still had a black-and-white TV set!). Today's high definition televisions are meant for watching so much more than TV shows. They have movie and sports settings, stereo speakers for listening to music, and can be hooked up to games consoles or computers. The latest innovations, like 3D and wireless
home theater systems, mean that the TV set will remain the center of home entertainment for some time to come, although TV broadcasts are just one form of entertainment that will have to compete for space on the screen.
the early days of TV broadcasting at these sites:
History of Radio & TV - Your Turn
task is to produce a booklet, aimed at Year 7, about the beginnings
of television OR radio history. It will be based on research you have
done by following the links above. You should include
details of the inventors involved in its creation, outlining what
each contribution was
eyewitness account of someone seeing/hearing the equipment used for
the first time in the 1920s
of the early equipment used, plus explanations
review of an early radio show (from before 1920) or TV show (before
Publisher or Word to create an A4 (folded) leaflet. Check EXTREMELY
carefully for spelling mistakes. You will be marked on
quality of your language (remember it is aimed at Year 7s so it must
be clear and simple)
selection of information (not too much, not too little)
presentation of information (use
of images, layout)